Ingredient Amount Substitution
Almond Meal 1 cup (100 grams) To make your own almond meal place 1 cup (100 grams) sliced (blanched (skins off) or natural (skins on)) almonds with 1 tablespoon (14 grams) granulated white sugar in a blender or food processor and process until finely ground. Sugar or flour is added to the almonds to prevent clumping as it absorbs the oil exuded from the almonds. Toasting the almonds first dries them which also helps to prevent clumping.
Almond Paste 1 1/3 cups (300 grams) 1 3/4 cups (175 grams) ground blanched almonds plus 1 1/2 cups (175 grams) powdered (confectioners or icing) sugar plus 1 large egg white (30 grams) plus 1 teaspoon almond extract plus 1/4 teaspoon salt
Ammonium bicarbonate 3/4 teaspoon 1 teaspoon baking soda
Arrowroot 1 tablespoon (15 grams)

1 tablespoon (15 grams) cornstarch, potato starch or rice starch

2 tablespoons (25 grams) all purpose flour

Baking Powder, double-acting
(Rule of Thumb: 1 teaspoon for every 1 cup of flour)

High-Altitude Adjustments:

above 3000 ft. - reduce baking powder 1/8 teaspoon for every 1 teaspoon of baking powder in recipe

above 5000 ft. - reduce baking powder 1/8-1/4 teaspoon for every 1 teaspoon baking powder in recipe

above 7000 ft. - reduce baking powder 1/4 teaspoon for every 1 teaspoon baking powder in recipe

1 teaspoon

1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar plus 1/4 teaspoon cornstarch

1 1/2 teaspoons single-action baking powder

1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 cup (120 ml) buttermilk, sour milk or yogurt to replace 1/2 cup (120 ml) non-acidic liquid

Baking Powder, single-acting 1 teaspoon

2/3 teaspoon double-acting baking powder

1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar plus 1/4 teaspoon cornstarch

Baking Soda (Sodium Bicarbonate)
(Rule of Thumb: 1/4 teaspoon for every 1 cup of flour)
1/2 teaspoon

2 teaspoons double-acting baking powder (must replace the acidic liquid in recipe with non-acidic liquid)

1/2 teaspoon potassium bicarbonate

Bread Crumbs, Dry 1 cup (150 grams)

1 cup crushed cracker crumbs

1 cup matzo meal

1 cup crushed cornflakes

1 cup ground oats

1 cup crushed potato chips

Buttermilk (Sour Milk) (see below under MILK, Buttermilk) 1 cup (240 ml)  
Carob Powder 1 tablespoon (7 grams) 1 tablespoon (7 grams) cocoa powder (either natural or Dutch-processed)
Chocolate, Bittersweet or Semi-sweet 1 ounce (30 grams) 1/2 ounce (15 grams) unsweetened chocolate plus 1 tablespoon (15 grams) granulated white sugar
Chocolate, Milk 1 ounce (30 grams)

1 ounce (30 grams) bittersweet or semi-sweet plus 1 tablespoon (15 grams) granulated white sugar

1 ounce (30 grams) sweet dark chocolate

1 ounce (30 grams) white chocolate

Chocolate, Sweet German 1 ounce (30 grams)

1 ounce (30 grams) bittersweet or semi-sweet chocolate plus 1/2 tablespoon (7 grams) granulated white sugar

1 ounce (30 grams) milk chocolate

Chocolate, Unsweetened 1 ounce (30 grams) 3 tablespoons (20 grams) natural cocoa powder (not Dutch-processed) plus 1 tablespoon (14 grams) unsalted butter, vegetable oil or shortening
Chocolate, White 1 ounce (30 grams)

1 ounce (30 grams) milk chocolate

1 ounce (30 grams) sweet dark chocolate

Cocoa Powder, Dutch-Processed 3 tablespoons (20 grams)

3 tablespoons (20 grams) natural unsweetened cocoa powder plus 1/8 teaspoon baking soda

1 ounce (30 grams) unsweetened chocolate plus 1/8 teaspoon baking soda (reduce fat in recipe by 1 tablespoon)

3 tablespoons (20 grams) carob powder

Cocoa Powder, Natural Unsweetened 3 tablespoons (20 grams)

3 tablespoons (20 grams) Dutch-processed cocoa plus 1/8 teaspoon cream of tartar, lemon juice or white vinegar

1 ounce (30 grams) unsweetened chocolate (reduce fat in recipe by 1 tablespoon)

3 tablespoons (20 grams) carob powder

Coconut, fresh 1 cup

1 cup (90 grams) dried flaked coconut

3/4 cup (75 grams) dried shredded coconut

Coconut, dry shredded 1 cup (90 grams)

1 1/4 cups freshly grated coconut

1 1/4 cup (110 grams) dried flaked coconut

Coconut milk, fresh 1 cup (240 ml)

1 cup (240 ml) canned coconut milk (not low fat)

3 tablespoons canned cream of coconut plus enough hot water or milk to equal 1 cup (240 ml)

1/4 cup (60 ml) coconut cream powder plus 1 cup (240 ml) hot water or milk

Coconut cream, fresh 1 cup (240 ml)

1 cup (240 ml) canned coconut cream

1 cup (240 ml) top layer of canned coconut milk (not low fat) (do not shake or stir can before skimming)

1 cup (240 ml) heavy whipping cream (35% butterfat) plus 1/2 cup coconut cream powder

Coffee, strong brewed 1/4 cup (60 ml) 2 tablespoons (10 grams) instant espresso powder dissolved in 3 tablespoons hot water
Cookie Crumbs 1 cup (100 grams) Can substitute equally among chocolate wafers, vanilla wafers, graham crackers, macaroons, or gingersnaps
Cornmeal, stone ground 1 cup (180 grams)

1 cup regular milled cornmeal

1 cup corn grits

1 cup polenta

1 cup maize meal

Corn Syrup, Dark 1 cup (240 ml) 3/4 cup (180 ml) light corn syrup plus 1/4 cup (60 ml) light molasses
Corn Syrup, Light 1 cup (240 ml)

1 cup (240 ml) dark corn syrup

1 cup (240 ml) treacle

1 cup (240 ml) liquid glucose

1 cup (240 ml) honey

1 cup (200 grams) granulated white sugar (increase the liquid in the recipe by 1/4 cup (60 ml))

Cornstarch or Corn flour (for thickening) 1 tablespoon (15 grams)

2 tablespoons (25 grams) all purpose flour

1 tablespoon (15 grams) potato starch or rice starch or flour

1 tablespoon (15 grams) arrowroot

2 tablespoons (25 grams) quick-cooking (instant) tapioca

Cream of Tartar 1/2 teaspoon 1/2 teaspoon white vinegar or lemon juice
Cream, Clotted 1 cup (225 grams)

1 cup (225 grams) creme fraiche

1 cup (225 grams) mascarpone cheese

1 cup (240 ml) heavy whipping cream (35% butterfat), whipped

Cream, Creme Fraiche 1 cup (225 grams)

1 cup (225 grams) sour cream

1 cup (240 ml) whipping cream plus 1 tablespoon buttermilk or yogurt

1/2 cup (120 ml) whipping cream plus 1/2 cup (112 grams) sour cream

1 cup (225 grams) mascarpone cheese

Cream, Half & Half (10 - 12% Butterfat) 1 cup (240 ml)

7/8 cup (210 ml) whole milk plus 2 tablespoons (25 grams) melted unsalted butter

1/2 cup (120 ml) light cream (5% butterfat) plus 1/2 cup (120 ml) whole milk

1/2 cup (120 ml) partly skimmed milk plus 1/2 cup (120 ml) heavy whipping cream (35%)

Cream, Heavy (35% butterfat) (not for whipping) 1 cup (240 ml) 2/3 cup (160 ml) whole milk plus 1/3 cup (75 grams) melted unsalted butter
Cream, Light or Coffee Cream (18% Butterfat) 1 cup (240 ml)

1 cup (240 ml) half & half cream (12% butterfat)

7/8 cup (210 ml) whole milk plus 3 tablespoons (35 grams) melted butter

1/2 cup (120 ml) evaporated milk or heavy cream plus 1/2 cup (120 ml) milk

Cream, Light Whipping (30% Butterfat) (not for whipping) 1 cup (240 ml)

3/4 cup (180 ml) whole milk plus 1/4 cup (57 grams) melted unsalted butter

1 cup (240 ml) half & half cream (12% butterfat)

Cream, Sour 1 cup (225 grams) (8 ounces)

1 cup (225 grams) plain yogurt
3/4 cup (180 ml) sour milk, buttermilk or plain yogurt + 1/3 cup (75 grams) melted butter

1 cup (225 grams) creme fraiche

1 tablespoon lemon juice or vinegar plus enough whole milk to fill 1 cup (240 ml) (let stand 5-10 minutes)

Currants 1 cup (120 grams)

1 cup (120 grams) raisins

1 cup (120 grams) chopped dates

1 cup (120 grams) other dried fruit (cranberries, cherries, blueberries)

Eggs, whole

1 large (about 2 ounces) In Shell (57 grams)

Without Shell (50 grams)

2 large egg yolks (36 grams) plus 1 tablespoon water (in baking)

2 large egg yolks (36 grams) (for custards, sauces, puddings and mousses)

3 1/2 tablespoons frozen whole egg, thawed

3 1/2 tablespoons egg substitute

2 1/2 tablespoons powdered whole egg plus 2 1/2 tablespoons water

Eggs, whites 1 large egg white (30 grams)

2 tablespoons frozen egg whites, thawed

1 tablespoon powdered egg white plus 2 tablespoons water

Eggs, yolks 2 large yolks (36 grams) 1 large whole egg (In Shell 57 grams) (Without Shell 50 grams)
Eggs, yolks 1 large yolk (18 grams)

2 tablespoons powdered egg yolk plus 2 teaspoons water

3 1/2 teaspoons frozen egg yolks, thawed

Extract, pure Vanilla 1 teaspoon

1/2 of vanilla bean

1/2 - 1 teaspoon other extract (almond, orange, lemon, etc.)

Other Extracts (almond, lemon, orange, peppermint, etc.) 1 teaspoon

1 teaspoon of other extract (vanilla, orange, lemon, etc.)

1 to 2 drops of oil of same flavor

Fats, Salted Butter 1/2 cup (113 grams)

1/2 cup (113 grams) unsalted butter plus 1/4 teaspoon salt

1/2 cup (113 grams) margarine

1/2 cup (113 grams) solid vegetable shortening or lard

Fats, Unsalted Butter 1/2 cup (113 grams)

1/2 cup (113 grams) salted butter (decrease the salt in recipe by 1/4 teaspoon)

1/2 cup (113 grams) margarine

1/2 cup (113 grams) solid vegetable shortening or lard

Fats, Lard 1/2 cup (113 grams)

1/2 cup (113 grams) solid vegetable shortening

1/2 cup (113 grams) plus 1 tablespoon (14 grams) unsalted butter

Fats, Margarine 1/2 cup (113 grams)

1/2 cup (113 grams) salted or unsalted butter

1/2 cup (113 grams) solid vegetable shortening

Fats, Solid Vegetable Shortening 1/2 cup (113 grams)

1/2 cup (113 grams) salted or unsalted butter

1/2 cup(113 grams) lard

1/2 cup (113 grams) margarine

Flour, All Purpose 1 cup (130 grams)

1 cup (110 grams) plus 2 tablespoons (20 grams) sifted cake flour

1 cup (130 grams) self-rising flour (omit baking powder and salt from recipe)

7/8 cup (130 grams) rice flour (starch) (do not replace all of the flour with the rice flour)

1/2 cup (65 grams) white cake flour plus 1/2 cup (75 grams) whole wheat flour

FLOUR, Bread 1 cup (160 grams) 1 cup (130 grams) all purpose flour
FLOUR, Cake 1 cup (120 grams) 3/4 cup (100 grams) all purpose flour plus 2 tablespoons (20 grams) cornstarch
FLOUR, Pastry 2 cups (270 grams) 1 1/3 cup (175 grams) all purpose flour plus 2/3 cup (80 grams) cake flour
FLOUR, Rice 1 cup (150 grams) Equal amounts of cake or pastry flour
FLOUR, Self-Rising 1 cup (140 grams) 1 cup (130 grams) similar grade (all purpose) flour plus 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder plus 1/4 teaspoon salt
FLOUR, Whole Wheat 1 cup (150 grams)

7/8 cup (120 grams) all purpose flour plus 2 tablespoon (6 grams) wheat germ

1 cup graham flour

GELATIN, Leaf or Sheet 4 leaves (4 x 9 inches) (10 x 23 cm) 1 (1/4 ounce) envelope (7 grams) powdered gelatin
GELATIN, Powdered (Unflavored) 1 envelope (1/4 ounce) (1 tablespoon granules) (7 grams)

4 leaves sheet gelatin

2 teaspoons agar

Ghee 1 tablespoon

1 tablespoon clarified butter

1 tablespoon vegetable oil

Ginger Root, freshly grated 1 tablespoon

1 tablespoon candied ginger, rinsed and finely chopped

1 1/2 teaspoon ground dried ginger plus 1/2 teaspoon fresh lemon juice

Glucose, liquid 1/2 cup (120 ml) 1/2 cup (120 ml) light corn syrup
Golden Syrup 1 cup (240 ml)

1 cup (240 ml) treacle

1 cup (240 ml) light molasses

1 cup (240 ml) corn syrup

Honey 1 cup (240 ml)

3/4 cup (180 ml) maple syrup plus 1/2 cup (100 grams) granulated white sugar

3/4 cup (180 ml) light or dark corn syrup plus 1/2 cup (100 grams) granulated white sugar

3/4 cup (180 ml) light molasses plus 1/2 cup (100 grams) granulated white sugar

1 1/4 cups (250 grams - 265 grams) granulated white or brown sugar plus 1/4 cup (60 ml) additional liquid in recipe plus 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar

Lemon Juice, freshly squeezed 1 tablespoon

1 tablespoon bottled lemon juice

1 tablespoon fresh lime juice

1/2 tablespoon vinegar (depending on recipe and do not use for flavoring)

Lemon, Zest 1 teaspoon

1 teaspoon orange or lime zest

1/2 teaspoon lemon extract

Lime Juice, freshly squeezed 1 tablespoon 1 tablespoon lemon or orange juice
Lime, Zest 1 teaspoon 1 teaspoon lemon or orange
Maple Sugar, finely grated 1/2 cup (100 grams)

1 cup (240 ml) maple syrup (reduce liquid in recipe by 1/4 cup)

3/4 cup (150 grams) granulated white sugar plus 1 teaspoon pure maple extract

Maple Syrup 1 cup (240 ml)

1/2 cup (100 grams) maple sugar (increase liquid in recipe by 1/4 cup (60 ml))

1 cup (240 ml) honey

3/4 cup (180 ml) corn syrup plus 1/4 cup (57 grams) butter plus 1/2 teaspoon maple extract (optional)

Marshmallows 8 regular

1 cup miniature

2.5 ounces marshmallow cream

Marzipan 2 1/2 cups (560 grams) 2 cups (450 grams) almond paste plus 1 cup (115 grams) powdered sugar plus 2 tablespoons light corn syrup
Mascarpone Cheese 1 cup (8 ounces) (225 grams)

1 cup (225 grams) Creme fraiche

3/4 cup (170 grams) cream cheese beaten with 1/4 cup (60 ml) heavy whipping cream (35%)

MILK, Buttermilk (sour milk) 1 cup (240 ml)

1 tablespoon lemon juice or vinegar (white or cider) plus enough milk to make 1 cup (240 ml) (let stand 5-10 minutes)

1 cup (225 grams) plain or low fat yogurt

1 cup (225 grams) sour cream

1 cup (240 ml) water plus 1/4 cup buttermilk powder

1 cup (240 ml) milk plus 1 1/2 - 1 3/4 teaspoons cream of tartar

MILK, Sweetened Condensed 14 ounce can (396 grams) 1 cup instant nonfat dry milk plus 2/3 cup (135 grams) granulated white sugar plus 1/2 cup (120 ml) boiling water plus 3 tablespoons (35 grams) melted unsalted butter (process in blender or food processor until smooth)
MILK, Evaporated Whole 1 cup (240 ml)

1 cup (240 ml) half & half (10-12% butterfat)

1 cup (240 ml) light or table cream (20% butterfat)

1 cup (240 ml) light (30% butterfat) or heavy whipping cream (35% butterfat)

MILK, Skim (Non fat) 1 cup (240 ml)

1/4 cup powdered skim milk plus 7/8 cup (210 ml) water

1/2 cup (120 ml) evaporated skim milk plus 1/2 cup (120 ml) water

MILK, Whole (3.5%) 1 cup (240 ml)

1/2 cup (120 ml) evaporated whole milk plus 1/2 cup (120 ml) water

1/2 cup condensed milk plus 1/2 cup (120 ml) water

1 cup (240 ml) skim milk plus 2 tablespoons (25 grams) melted butter or margarine

1/4 cup powdered skim milk plus 7/8 cup (210 ml) water plus 1 tablespoon (14 grams) melted butter or margarine

Molasses 1 cup (240 ml)

1 cup (240 ml) honey

1 cup (240 ml) dark corn syrup

1 cup (240 ml) maple syrup

3/4 cup (180 ml) light or dark brown sugar heated to dissolve in 1/4 cup (60 ml) liquid

Nuts, chopped, ground, or whole 1 cup (100 grams) 1 cup (100 grams) of similar nuts prepared in the same way
Oats, quick-cooking rolled 1 cup (90 grams) 1 cup (90 grams) regular (old fashioned) rolled oats
Oats, regular (old-fashioned) 1 cup (90 grams) 1 cup (90 grams) quick-cooking rolled
Orange Juice, freshly squeezed 1 cup (240 ml) 1 cup reconstituted frozen concentrate
Orange, Zest 1 teaspoon

1 teaspoon lemon or lime zest

1 teaspoon finely chopped candied orange peel

Polenta, dry 1 cup (180 grams)

1 cup cornmeal

1 cup maize meal

1 cup corn grits

Raisins 1 cup (120 grams)

1 cup (120 grams) dried currants

1 cup (120 grams) pitted chopped dates

1 cup (120 grams) dried fruit, finely chopped (cherries, cranberries, blueberries, etc.)

Ricotta Cheese 1 cup (8 ounces) (225 grams) 1 cup (225 grams) dry cottage cheese
Rose Water 1 teaspoon 1 teaspoon any flower-based water
Salt, kosher 1 teaspoon 1 teaspoon sea salt or table
Salt, sea salt 1 teaspoon 1 teaspoon kosher or table
Salt, table 1 teaspoon 1 teaspoon kosher or sea salt
SUGAR, granulated white 1 cup (200 grams)

1 cup (200 grams) caster (superfine) sugar

1 cup (215 grams) tightly packed light or dark brown sugar

SUGAR, brown, light or dark 1 cup (215 grams)

1 cup (215 grams) raw sugar

1 cup (200 grams) white granulated sugar

1 cup (200 grams) white granulated sugar plus 1/4 cup (60 ml) unsulfured light molasses

For light brown sugar - substitute 1/2 cup (110 grams) dark brown sugar plus 1/2 cup (100 grams) white granulated sugar

SUGAR, caster (superfine) 1 cup (200 grams) 1 cup (200 grams) granulated white sugar, processed in food processor until very fine
SUGAR, raw 1 cup (215 grams) 1 cup (215 grams) light or dark brown sugar
Tapioca, instant or quick-cooking 1 tablespoon (12 grams)

2 tablespoons (24 grams) pearl tapioca, soaked

1 1/2 tablespoons (20 grams) flour

Treacle 1 cup (240 ml)

1 cup (240 ml) light or dark corn syrup

1 cup (240 ml) light molasses

Vanilla Bean 1 bean 2 - 3 teaspoons pure vanilla extract
Vanilla Extract 1 teaspoon 1/2 teaspoon powdered
VINEGAR, apple cider vinegar 1/4 cup (60 ml) 1/4 cup (60 ml) white vinegar
VINEGAR, white 1/4 cup (60 ml)

1/4 cup (60 ml) apple cider vinegar

1/3 cup (80 ml) freshly squeezed lemon juice

YEAST, active dry 1 envelope (1/4 ounce) (7 grams)

1 scant (7 grams) tablespoon active dry yeast

1 cake (3/5 ounce) fresh compressed yeast

1 tablespoon (7 grams) fast-rising active yeast

YEAST, compressed 1 cake (3/5 ounce)

1 (1/4 ounce) envelope (7 grams) active dry yeast

1 scant tablespoon (7 grams) active dry yeast

Yogurt, plain (not low fat) 1 cup (225 grams)

1 cup (225 grams) sour cream

1 cup (240 ml) buttermilk

1 cup (225 grams) creme fraiche

1 cup (240 ml) heavy whipping cream (35% butterfat) plus 1 tablespoon freshly squeezed lemon juice